Title : Adherence to and impact of African Swine Fever quarantine measures on smallholder pig value chain actors in two border districts of Uganda
Pig production in Uganda has been constrained by African Swine Fever (ASF). With no effective vaccine for ASF disease, biosecurity and movement control are the only available control measures in Uganda. To effectively implement ASF biosecurity measures, there is need for knowledge on implementation of movement control measures, and perceived economic impact of imposed quarantine measures on value chain actors. A study conducted in districts of Kisoro and Moyo, involved pig value chain actors (PVCAs) selected using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ten focus group discussions were conducted in a participatory epidemiology approach and data analyzed using matrix-table. Results indicated PVCAs have knowledge of imposed quarantine control measures such as ban on trade and movement of pigs and pig products. PVCAs complied with measures associated with trade activities in; livestock markets, designated slaughter slabs, and pork joints, in addition to confinement of free-range pigs, suspension of issuing movement-permit and pork inspection. However, measures implemented against quarantine regulations were the illegal trade in pigs and pork within the district and across national and international borders, illegal slaughter of pigs at farmers’ homes and in the bush, and illegal movement of pigs and pork. The most economically affected stakeholders were farmers and traders as ranked by participants. Sale of pigs and pork forgone by compliant farmers and traders, cost incurred in implementing biosecurity and buying feeds were perceived as the largest contributors to economic loss. In conclusion, absence of live pigs in livestock markets and designated slaughter slabs and pork in pork-joints gave hope in controlling movement of pigs and pig products. Pigs’ purchase and slaughter at farmers’ home motivated value chain actors to sustain movement of pigs and pork contrary to quarantine control measures. Perception of incurred cost of production during quarantine impacted economically on compliant farmers. We recommend future an in-depth quantitative research on economic impact of quarantine imposition on value chain actors.