Title : Evidence of multiple point mutations in Theileria annulata cytochrome b gene incriminated in buparvaquone treatment failure
Drug resistance is one of the emerging and re-emerging epidemics affecting both veterinary and public health sectors. Buparvaquone provides the most satisfactory means in the treatment of bovine tropical theileriosis. However, recently there has been widespread reports of development of resistance of Theileria annulata to buparvaquone. To investigate the situation in Sudan where bovine tropical theileriosis is endemic, fifty blood samples from T. annulata-positive cattle. were used for DNA extraction, PCR and cytochrome b gene nucleotide sequencing. Analysis of the two buparvaquone binding site regions Q01 (130–148) and Q02 (244–266), revealed three non- synonymous mutations at codon 146; alanine (GCT) to threonine (ACT) within the Q01 region across all 50 isolates and the other mutation at codon 129; serine (AGC) to glycine (GGC) in 18 isolates which is very close to the Q01 binding site. However, we documented another mutation at position 227; valine (GTG) to methionine (ATG) close to the close to the Q02 binding site, in three isolates with mutation at codon 129. We concluded that this study has provided evidence of point mutations in the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata that might be associated with buparvaquone treatment failure in Sudan.
- Emergence of resistance to buparvaquone by some identified theileria annulata parasite in Sudan.
- The failure of buparvaquone treatment might be due to mutations in cytochrome b gene.
- Evidence of mutations in Theileria annulata were reported in other countries.
- Advanced molecular techniques would help considerably to identify mutations that cause failure of treatment.
- They can apply the molecular biology techniques in further research studies.
- To consider failure of treatments that can happen frequently in veterinary therapeutics when they are treating animals.
- Yes, by conducting further research on causes of drug resistance.
- Confirming emergence of resistance to buparvaquone would help to draw attention to develop new drug for Theileriosis.
- Using of molecular biology techniques was very efficient to determine the problem behind buparvaquone resistance.
- Other benefits could be gained from this research are screenings of other parasites to identify mutations could be relevant to emergence of drug resistance.