Veterinary science is concerned with animal health and welfare. It covers everything from preventative care to psychiatric evaluation to intricate surgical procedures, much like a medical degree. Veterinary science is the branch of science that studies animal immunity. It also keeps an eye on the prevention of disease outbreaks. Veterinary science contributes to human health through monitoring and controlling zoonotic disease (infectious disease spread from nonhuman animals to people), ensuring food safety, and conducting medical research.
Veterinary medicine is the discipline of medicine that deals with animal disease, disorder, and injury prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment. Apart from that, it deals with animal husbandry, breeding, nutrition research, and product creation. Veterinary medicine covers a large range of animal species, both domesticated and wild, as well as a wide range of diseases that can affect them. Veterinary medicine is frequently practised, both under professional supervision and without it. Professional care is usually provided by a veterinarian, although it can also be provided by Para veterinary workers like veterinary nurses or technicians. Other paraprofessionals with specific expertise, such as animal physiotherapy or dentistry, and species-specific jobs, such as farriers, can complement this.
Animal biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology in which molecular biology techniques are utilized to genetically modify (i.e., alter the genome of) animals for agricultural, industrial, or pharmaceutical applications. Animal biotechnology has been utilized to create genetically engineered animals that can synthesis therapeutic proteins, develop faster, and are disease resistant. Recent advances in animal biotechnology have been aided by recent advances in animal genome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and metabolic profiling of animal cells. More recently, genome editing technologies (TALENS, Zinc Finger Nucleases, and CRISPR- Cas systems) have opened up new possibilities for creating genetic variations in animals that can improve their health, agricultural production, and disease resistance. All animals are included in animal biotechnology, including livestock, poultry, fish, insects, companion animals, and laboratory animals. An animal biotechnologist researches the effects of nutrients in feed and/or animal reproductive systems in order to create techniques for better animal health and production efficiency. In addition, animal biotechnologists will provide technical information to veterinarians and other animal health professionals, as well as keep track of procedures and farm visits. Animals are becoming increasingly involved in the advancement of biotechnology, as well as benefiting from it. When animals and biotechnology are combined, improvements are made in four areas: human health, animal health and welfare, animal product enhancements, and environmental and conservation benefits.
Ethics refers to a moral agreement about what is right and wrong. Human-animal relationships and how humans should treat animals are both examined in animal ethics. Animal ethics can be characterised as "arguments about the proper and improper treatment of animals" (. It is a branch of research that examines the appropriateness of animal use in a number of circumstances by determining whether an activity is for the moral good of animals (including humans). It attempts to comprehend nonhuman animal-human moral conflicts by reasoning and knowledge, as well as an analysis of nonhuman animal status ideas. As a result, it addresses the topic of human moral obligation toward nonhuman animals, as well as the quality and amount of care that should be provided. The ethical considerations surrounding the use of animals in research are numerous. In some circumstances, it is thought that the use of laboratory animals may be important to enhance the lives of people, animals, or the environment. At the same time, most people believe that animals have moral status and that how we treat them should be based on ethical concerns.
The human body's architecture is designed in such a way that cells cannot be regarded as separate entities. Various methodologies, such as cell-based tests and tissue culture research, are performed to explore disease mechanisms and develop ways to reverse adverse conditions. A good animal model for any disease should have pathology that is similar to human disease circumstances. Animals have been used in scientific investigation since the fourth century B.C. Animal models can help researchers better understand disease processes and treatments, as well as overcome the constraints of human-subject clinical trials. Animals are increasingly being used as experimental models for human diseases in order to better understand disease origins, biology, and prevention. Laboratory animals play an important role in scientific study, discoveries, and technological advancements, and they help people and other valuable creatures live better lives. Animals are employed as models for studying human biology and diseases, as well as test subjects for the creation and testing of medications, vaccinations, and other biologicals (antibodies, hormones, and so on) to improve and promote human health.
Veterinary pathologists are veterinarians that specialise in disease diagnosis using animal tissue and bodily fluids. Veterinary pathology is separated into two sections, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology, similar to medical pathology. Veterinary pathologists play a vital role in medication discovery and safety, as well as scientific research, in addition to diagnosing disease in food-producing animals, companion animals, zoo animals, and wildlife. Animal pathologists, often known as veterinary pathologists, work to safeguard the health of cattle, pets, zoo and wild animals, as well as humans. Consumer risks can be detected by animal pathologists researching animals that produce food. Post-mortem examinations are performed by pathologists to determine the cause of death in animals. Veterinary pathologists work alongside veterinarians to figure out what's causing an animal's disease. The identification of a mortality aids research in the prevention of diseases in living animals. Pathologists may work in research to produce vaccines and medicine to treat diseases in both animals and humans.
Animal physiology is the scientific study of animals' or their components' life-sustaining qualities, functions, and processes. Temperature, blood flow, and hormone regulation are just a few of the main homeostatic mechanisms covered by this discipline. Animal physiology and biology (often known as zoology) is a broad field of study in the biological sciences that deals with the structure and function of animals as well as how they interact with their surroundings. Animal physiology is the study of how animals’ function and the basic processes that allow animals to live. From membranes to organelles, cells, organs, organ systems, and the entire animal, these processes can be investigated at various levels of organisation. Animal physiology is the study of how biological processes work, how they operate in different environments, and how they are regulated and integrated. Animal physiology is intertwined with anatomy (the relationship between function and structure) and the fundamental physical and chemical laws that govern both living and non-living systems.
The increased availability and complexity of data has created new opportunities and problems in veterinary epidemiology, such as converting plentiful, diversified, and fast growing "big" data into valuable animal health insights. Big data analytics are used to identify high-risk populations, combine data or processes acting at multiple scales through epidemiological modelling approaches, and harness high velocity data to monitor animal health trends and detect emerging health threats in order to better understand health risks and minimize the impact of adverse animal health issues. While big data has been utilised in human medicine and public health to improve "precision" care and analyse trends in human diseases, big data in veterinary medicine has largely been employed for geographical analytics and bioinformatics. The use of big data for animal disease surveillance, on the other hand, is a rapidly emerging field.
Precision medicine has the potential to transform medical practice and enhance treatment outcomes. While the present focus is on human medicinal applications, the veterinary profession has plenty to offer and gain. Molecular phenotyping of animal diseases will link them to human disorders with similar phenotypes for which precise therapies have been found or are being developed. Beyond describing disease pathogenesis based on similar genetic processes between humans and animals, precision medicine promises benefits to veterinary clinical practice. Veterinary Precision Medicine (VPM) is described as an optimized preventive or curative therapeutic approach based on the identification of disease biomarkers and the application of disease monitoring technologies (right animal, right medicine, right dose, right time). Field veterinarians' roles may be altered in the future as a result of the development of such technology.
A biothreat is a threat posed by a harmful biological agent, such as bacterial, fungal, or viral diseases, as well as poisons produced by other species. Pathogens and/or their toxic compounds that constitute a significant hazard to human health are referred to as biological threat agents, or biothreats or bioagents. They are a broad group that includes viruses, bacteria, and toxins derived from biological sources, and their diversity is reflected in their wide range of transmissibility, infectivity, and lethality. Bioagents include both naturally occurring and created pathogens, and the threat they represent stems from both natural outbreaks and their deliberate release. Many biological agents are resistant to the environment and aren't protected by vaccines, making them potential candidates for bioweapons. Animal pathogen attacks have the potential to have disastrous socioeconomic, public health, and national security effects.
A veterinary cardiologist is a heart and circulatory system specialist with specialised training. Veterinary cardiology is the specialty of medicine that deals with problems of the heart and blood arteries in animals. Animals can have a range of heart and lung disorders, many of which are comparable to those experienced by their human relatives. Canine and feline congestive heart failure, hypertension, dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and valve diseases are all included. Because the functions of your pet's heart and lungs are linked, veterinary cardiologists are also familiar with lung disease and chest cavity ailments.
Veterinary oncology is a branch of veterinary medicine that focuses on the detection and treatment of cancer in animals. Cancer is a leading cause of death among pets. According to one study, 45 percent of dogs over the age of ten died of cancer. For two reasons, skin tumours are the most commonly diagnosed type of tumour in domestic animals: 1. continual exposure of animal skin to the sun and external environment; and 2. skin cancers are simple to spot since they are on the outside of the animal. In veterinary oncology, there has been a push in recent years to treat cancer patients with a multidisciplinary approach. This can comprise surgery followed or preceded by chemotherapy, radiation, or immunotherapy (or both). The benefit of this method is that it places less focus on attaining a surgical cure in cancers that are naturally sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thus reducing the scope of surgery and hence morbidity and complication rates.
3D printing is the finest way to make the best animal prosthesis and provide animals a greater chance at survival. Dogs, cats, wild foxes, and other animals are frequently injured by vehicles, and these injured domestic and agricultural animals may require a leg amputation or how about wild animals such as elephants that lose a leg after stepping on a landmine, or even worse, when humans poach these animals and leave them in distress. These animals would have been deemed unfit for a quality existence and possibly put down around a decade ago. A fitted prosthesis may now be made thanks to additive manufacturing. Over time, software advancements have resulted in more comfortable and ergonomic animal prosthesis. While 3D printing allows for more lightweight, inexpensive, and personalised animal prosthetics, it's vital to understand that not all animal prosthetics are created equal. Indeed, some animal medical specialists and veterinarians are concerned that as such attachments become more common and 3D printing becomes more widely available, some animals may suffer as a result of poor workmanship.
A novel infection occurring from the evolution or alteration of an existing pathogen or parasite, resulting in a change of host range, vector, pathogenicity, or strain; or the appearance of a previously unrecognised infection or disease is classified as an emerging disease. A re-emerging disease is one that has already been identified but has changed its geographical setting, expanded its host range, or increased its prevalence dramatically. Pathogenic infectious diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and tick-borne infections, have emerged in the last two decades, posing a significant global threat to human health. A variety of underlying causal elements are linked to the emergence of anything new. Interactions with zoonotic pathogens in a host-parasite continuum involving wildlife, domestic animals, and humans are among them. Animals play an important role in the spread of zoonotic diseases. According to the CDC, animals are responsible for 75 percent of new or emerging diseases, and animals are also responsible for more than 60 percent of recognized infectious diseases in humans, such as the rabies virus, ringworm, and salmonella. This emphasizes the need for veterinary involvement in the fight against zoonotic infections.
Animals breed and kept for agricultural reasons are known as farm animals. Cows, chickens, pigs, geese, and other animals are among them. Wildlife farming is the practise of keeping traditionally undomesticated animals in an agricultural setting in order to produce live animals for canned hunting and as pets, as well as commodities such as food and traditional medicine, as well as materials such as leather, fur, and fibre. Wildlife farming, according to some conservationists, can help endangered species avoid extinction by lowering the burden on wild animal populations, which are frequently hunted for food. The introduction of zoonotic diseases has been attributed to wildlife farming, such as the SARs outbreak, which has now been linked to civet farming.
Many agricultural systems include animals. Domesticated animals, such as livestock, play an important part in varied farming systems, both because they produce food and because they cycle nutrients around the farm. Wild animals can aid in the control of pest populations while also contributing to biodiversity. While there is currently a lack of scientific understanding of how animals contaminate produce and proof of animals causing food safety outbreaks, a few recent outbreaks have implicated animals as a likely source of contamination. Animals raised on farms for meat, dairy products, or to assist farmers are known as farm animals.
Although veterinary medicine has been around since 9000 BC (Cole, 2014), some of the most significant developments have occurred in the last ten years. Without a doubt, veterinary medicine has progressed. Microfracture detection has only been used in veterinary medicine for around ten years. It is used primarily on racehorses because microfractures in the cannon bones, often known as bucking shins, affect about 70% of thoroughbred horses. When collagen fibres in the bone fail, microfractures result in the creation of cracks. Around 10% of horses with bucked shins have been found to have stress fractures on radiographic examination. If left untreated, the microcracks in microfractures can progress to stress fractures. Because regular x-rays cannot detect microfractures and stress fractures, researchers have been creating a monitoring system based on the technology used by seismologists to identify earthquakes.
Prion diseases are a group of diseases. A prion is a protein that causes normal proteins in the brain to fold improperly. Prion diseases can affect both humans and animals, and diseased meat products can sometimes spread the infection to humans. Prion diseases are a set of neurodegenerative diseases that affect people and animals equally. They're caused by improperly folded proteins accumulating in the brain, which can affect memory, behaviour, and mobility. Prion diseases are quite uncommon. Scrapie in sheep and goats, BSE (mad cow disease), transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease in cervids, and spongiform encephalopathy in primates are examples of animal prion diseases. Although rare incidences of atypical scrapie and BSE have been identified, animal prion diseases have primarily been acquired by infection from contaminated feed or exposure to a contaminated environment.
The use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition is known as stem-cell therapy. The cells are normally obtained from bone marrow transplantation, although they can also be obtained from umbilical cord blood. The development of various sources for stem cells, as well as the use of stem-cell therapy for neurological illnesses and conditions including diabetes and heart disease, is currently underway. Following breakthroughs such as scientists' capacity to collect and culture embryonic stem cells, produce stem cells utilising somatic cell nuclear transfer, and apply procedures to create induced pluripotent stem cells, stem-cell therapy has become contentious. To date, stem cells have been employed to treat a number of diseases in various animal species, largely on an experimental basis. Regenerative veterinary medicine began with an emphasis on orthopaedic disorders, but it is now rapidly growing to include orodental and digestive tract ailments, as well as cardiac, liver, renal, respiratory, neuromuscular, cutaneous, olfactory, and reproductive system diseases. In dogs and horses, stem cell treatments were most commonly used to treat disorders of various organ systems, while in cats, they were used to treat respiratory, renal, and inflammatory diseases.
The field of veterinary reproductive medicine and surgery is known as teriogenology. This encompasses anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology as well as all elements of clinical practise in male and female animal reproductive, obstetrics, and neonatology. The phrase "Theriogenology" comes from the ancient Greek terms "Therio" which means beast or animal, "gen" which means creation or generation, and "ology" which means study of. Theriogenology encompasses both male and female mammals, as well as reproduction physiology and pathology. Theriogenology is a medical and surgical branch of veterinary medicine that studies the physiology and pathology of male and female reproductive systems in animals, as well as the clinical practise of veterinary obstetrics, gynaecology, andrology, and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Veterinary surgeons that specialise in animal reproduction and obstetrics are known as theriogenologists.
Both human and veterinary medicine rely heavily on diagnosis, which can be defined as the process or action of determining the nature and cause of a disease or damage. Despite the fact that diagnostic techniques and procedures have long piqued the interest of instructors and researchers, social science and sociological inquiries into the practise of diagnosis have been few and far between. This is especially true when it comes to veterinary diagnostic processes and practises. Surveillance, monitoring, or screening for disease, prevalence estimation, and risk-factor research are all examples of non-clinical applications of diagnostic tests in veterinary medicine. Diagnosis, as a practise, as a type of specialised knowledge, and as a scientific and social process, is at the heart of medical and veterinary activity and professional validity. Nonetheless, diagnostic practise is evolving.
The study of toxicoses, the identification and characterization of toxins, and the determination of their fate in the body are all part of veterinary toxicology. Because of the low frequency of instances seen in a practising context, veterinary toxicology can be difficult. When a toxicosis happens, it usually affects a significant number of animals and may result in legal action. Veterinary toxicology is a comprehensive field of study that deals with the detection and treatment of intoxications in pets, animals, and wildlife. Veterinary toxicology is a multifaceted mix that draws from and contributes to the veterinary medical profession, the scientific discipline of toxicology, and medical science in general. Pesticide usage and associated nontarget toxicity in aquatic creatures are always a problem in veterinary toxicology.
Veterinary dentistry is the branch of dentistry that deals with animal care. In animals, it is the art and science of preventing, diagnosing, and treating conditions, diseases, and abnormalities of the mouth cavity, maxillofacial region, and associated tissues. Endodontics, oral and maxillofacial radiography, oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral medicine, orthodontics, pedodontics, periodontics, and prosthodontics are all services provided by veterinary dentists. They treat jaw fractures, malocclusions, oral cancer, periodontal disease, stomatitis, and other veterinary-specific disorders in the same way that human dentists do (e.g., feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions). Equine dental technicians, for example, are professional dental workers who perform routine procedures on horses. Cleaning, adjustment, filing, extraction, or repair of an animal's teeth, as well as all other areas of oral health care in animals, are all covered by veterinary dentistry, oral medicine, and oral surgery. Oral medicine, oral surgery, and veterinary dentistry are all invasive procedures that can have a significant impact on animal health.
Wearables, Wearable technology, fashion technology, smart wear, tech togs, streetwear tech, skin electronics, or fashion electronics are smart electronic devices (electronic devices with microcontrollers) that are worn near to and/or on the surface of the skin, where they monitor, analyse, and communicate information concerning e.g., body signals such as vital signs, and/or environmental data, and allow in certain cases immediate biofeedback to the wearer. Wearable devices like activity trackers are examples of the Internet of Things because "things" like electronics, software, sensors, and connectivity are effectors that allow objects to exchange data (including data quality) with a manufacturer, operator, and/or other connected devices over the internet without requiring human intervention. Scientists have created a wearable gadget device that can detect vital indicators in animals' fur, such as heart rate and respiration. The results could help sniffer dogs do their jobs better, as well as allow pet owners to track their pets' health in real time.
Pet wearables are predicted to be a major business on a regular basis, with an increasing number of companies creating wearable devices just for animals. Trackers may also maintain tabs on their position if they go missing, as well as monitor their health by watching for telltale changes in behaviour that indicate disease.
Over the last few years, emerging infectious diseases have attracted a lot of attention. Zoonotic diseases are a large group of new diseases that have been found. Zoonotic diseases are transmissible to humans and are maintained in nature in vertebrate animals, possibly with the help of an arthropod vector. Fungi, parasites, bacteria, rickettsia, and viruses are among the species that can cause zoonotic disease. Approximately 60% of all known infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic, as are 75% of all developing infectious diseases. Zoonosis, also known as zoonotic disease, is a disease that has been transmitted to humans directly or indirectly from an animal source. The increasing need for animal-derived food has prompted the intensification and industrialisation of animal production, in which a huge number of genetically similar animals are bred in for increased productivity and disease resistance. They are raised in close proximity to one another in less-than-ideal conditions characterised by insufficient biosecurity and animal husbandry, poor waste management, and the use of antimicrobials as a substitute for these conditions in intensive farm settings. As a result, they are more susceptible to infections, which can lead to the spread of zoonotic diseases.
The term "biochemical" refers to the type of chemicals contained in living organisms. So, biochemistry can be defined as a discipline of chemistry that studies substances found in living organisms such as plants, animals, and humans. Animal biochemistry is the study of the various chemical reactions that occur in an animal's body during its life. The research focuses on animal biochemistry, which is important for comprehending significant aspects of veterinary science and animal husbandry in order to better understand animal metabolism and function in health and disease. Biochemistry is extremely important in veterinary and research because it relates to the metabolism and function of animals in health and disease, and it is the foundation for a thorough grasp of fundamental elements of veterinary science and animal husbandry. Structural biochemistry is a branch of biochemistry concerned with the structure of molecules. Nowadays, biochemistry is mostly concerned with chemical interactions involving enzymes and protein characteristics.
Animal diagnostics is a branch of science concerned with the identification of numerous animal diseases produced by external and internal sources, particularly microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungus. Animal disease is a change in an animal's normal state that impairs the normal functioning of its vital processes. An attempt is made to diagnose the disease before an unhealthy animal is treated. To determine the etiology of a disease, both clinical findings and laboratory test results may be required. Clinical findings include symptoms that are visible to a nonspecial and clinical signals that may only be comprehended by a veterinarian. A clinical examination would reveal whether the animal is in good physical condition, is eating appropriately, is bright and attentive, and appears to be functioning normally. Veterinary diagnostic laboratories assist veterinarians, livestock producers, pet owners, and biomedical researchers in detecting various animal diseases and provide a wide range of animal disease diagnostic services. Diagnostic medical testing for infectious agents, poisons, and other causes of disease in animal diagnostic samples is provided by the diagnostic laboratories.
Veterinary immunology, defined as the study of the immune systems of domestic and wild animals of economic or sentimental significance to humans, provides both practical knowledge and novel insights into basic immunology. It is a subdiscipline of biomedical science that is linked to zoology and veterinary medicine. Animal immune system malfunctions and disorders, as well as their health, are of interest. It's intriguing about how the immune system works, how vaccinations prevent disease, and why certain vaccines don't function or cause side effects. Developing novel immunologically based diagnostic tools and immunotherapeutic techniques, such as vaccine approaches, are clearly essential applied goals. Domestic animal disease resistance could also be improved by genetic selection for immune features.
Veterinary microbiology is concerned with microbial (bacterial, fungal, and viral) diseases that affect animals that provide food, other useful products, or companionship. Antimicrobial resistance research is incorporated in a variety of animal microbiology studies. Wild animal microbial diseases are also researched in animal microbiology if the infections are of particular interest due to their interactions with humans (zoonosis) and domestic animals. Veterinary microbiologists are doctors who specialise in researching microbes that cause sickness in animals. Vaccines, medicines, and other animal health items are frequently developed at their laboratories. Veterinary microbiologists research a wide range of disease-causing microbes, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites.
Obesity, or an excess of bodily fat, has become a widespread problem in animals in recent years. Apart from affecting their overall health, it can also limit the life span of animals. Serious health problems, including osteoarthritis, heart disease, diabetes, respiratory problems, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease, may occur in such animals. Obesity is typically caused by excessive caloric intake and inefficient energy utilisation. Overfeeding and lack of exercise are the most common causes, however disorders like hypothyroidism and insulinoma can also induce obesity in animals. Obesity is the most common form of malnutrition in small animals, and it is also one of the most common conditions seen in veterinary practise. Overweight animals who lose weight live longer, have more vigour, and have less pain. According to estimates, at least 25% to 30% of dogs and cats in industrialised countries are obese. Because of the high frequency of overweight animals, clinical measures to treat and prevent this nutritionally sensitive condition are necessary.
The study of pharmacological characteristics and all elements of their interaction with living beings is referred to as veterinary pharmacology. Any chemical agent (other than food) used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or in the management of physiological processes, is referred to as a drug. The knowledge and methods of many related clinical and non-clinical disciplines, including biology, chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, physiology, pathology, and medicine, are used in pharmacology. The experimental science of veterinary pharmacology is concerned with the characteristics of medications and their impact on living organisms. It has included research into drug sources (pharmacognosy), the magnitude and time course of the observed pharmacological effect on the body pharmacodynamics (PD), the relationship between administered doses, the observed biological fluid/tissue concentrations of the drug, and time in the body pharmacokinetics (PK), and the use of drugs in the treatment of diseases.
Animal welfare, in its most basic form, relates to people's interactions with animals and their responsibility to ensure that the animals in their care are treated properly and responsibly. Animal welfare is not a recent phenomenon, despite its present appeal. Since domestication, which happened at least 10,000 years ago in Neolithic times, there has been a concern for animal welfare. Animal welfare refers to an animal's quality of life, which includes how well he or she is coping with his or her current condition and surroundings. Animal welfare is vital since numerous animals are used for entertainment, food, medicine, fashion, scientific advancement, and as exotic pets all around the world.
Environmental exposures in domestic and wild animals can be used to confirm or inform epidemiologic investigations in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental risks and serve as a public health early warning system. One Health is a philosophy that acknowledges that human health is inextricably linked to the health of animals and our shared environment. One Health is not a new concept, but it has gained traction in recent years. This is because a variety of reasons have changed how people, animals, plants, and our environment interact.
Biomedical research is a broad field of study that aims to find new ways to prevent and treat diseases that cause illness and death in humans and animals. This broad field of study encompasses a wide range of biological and physical disciplines. Biomedical researchers examine biological processes and disorders using technological techniques in the hopes of generating viable therapies and cures. Many scientists, including biologists and chemists, are involved in biomedical research, which is an evolutionary process that necessitates rigorous experimentation. The development, testing, and evaluation of new medications and therapies necessitates thorough scientific experimentation, development, and evaluation.
Animal research has tremendously aided our understanding of biological processes in health and disease, as well as resulting in major medicinal breakthroughs, ranging from the endocrine effects of exogenous insulin to the curative effects of penicillin and the polio vaccine, to name a few. As a result, animal models have established themselves as the gold standard in biomedical research. Animals are still used in several areas of biomedical research to find the causes, diagnoses, and treatments of sickness and suffering in humans and animals.
Animal breeding is a discipline of animal science concerned with determining the genetic value of domestic cattle in terms of estimated breeding value (EBV). Animals having better EBVs in growth rate, egg, meat, milk, or wool production, as well as other significant desired qualities, have been selected for breeding. Agricultural cattle production has been transformed all over the world as a result of this. The branch of science dealing with optimising desired genetic features, such as raising animals with leaner meat, is known as animal breeding, genetics, and genomics. Animal geneticists have discovered genes that can improve an animal's development, health, and ability to absorb nutrition. These genetic advancements have the potential to improve output while lowering environmental impact. Animals and livestock account for 40% of global agricultural output and support the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people around the world. Advances in animal breeding, genetics, and genomics are allowing the industry to become more efficient.
Over the last few years, digital disruption has accelerated dramatically, affecting every aspect of the economy, including animal production, health, and welfare. New techniques of data collection, administration, usage, and interchange employing existing and advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) and innovations are at the heart of digital technology. Modern economies, as well as entire production, management, and governance systems, are being transformed by these technologies. With the emergence of a variety of cutting-edge digital technologies, the world is changing at a rapid pace, with significant potential to improve food production to feed a growing population, promote more environmentally sustainable agricultural practises, and maintain high-quality sanitary standards. Agriculture and cattle, as well as animal health and welfare, are being transformed by digital technologies. And this shift is projected to continue in the coming years, with far-reaching implications for both developed and developing countries' veterinary sectors.
Digital technologies will have a significant impact on the delivery of animal health services and the management of animal health systems. As a result, Veterinary Services must be proactive and adapt to the continuous digital transformation. For the foreseeable future, investing in new technology and equipping present and future veterinary workforces with the essential digital skills and knowledge to stay current and at the forefront of digital innovation in animal health should be a top priority.
Domestic animals play an important role in human well-being, and global demand for animal products is steadily expanding. Domesticated animals are those that have been selectively developed and genetically adapted to live alongside humans over generations. Their wild relatives or cousins are genetically separate from them. Domestication of animals can be divided into three categories: companion animals (dogs and cats), food animals (sheep, cows, pigs, turkeys, and so on), and working or draft animals (horses, donkeys, camels). Animals that are strong candidates for domestication usually have a few characteristics in common. Domestication refers to the mutual relationship that exists between animals and people who have control over their care and reproduction. Taming and domestication are not the same thing. Domestication is the permanent genetic change of a bred lineage that leads to an inherited propensity toward humans, whereas taming is the conditioned behavioural modification of a wild-born animal when its natural dislike of humans is diminished and it accepts the presence of humans. This definition takes into account both the biological and cultural aspects of domestication, as well as the consequences for humans and domesticated animals and plants.
Exotic pets are animals that are relatively rare or odd to keep, or are often thought of as wild creatures rather than pets. The definition varies by culture, place, and time—as animals become well-established in the world of animal fantasy, they may lose their exotic status. The definition is changing; several rodents, reptiles, and amphibians have established themselves in the world of animal fantasy to the point where they are no longer regarded exotic. Exotic pets might include any unique or unusual-looking animal. "Exotic" usually refers to a species that isn't native or indigenous to the owner's area, whereas "pet" refers to a companion animal that lives with people. Any live monkey, alligator, crocodile, cayman, raccoon, skunk, fox, bear, sea mammal, poisonous snake, feline species other than domestic cat (felis domesticus), canine species other than domestic dog (canis familiaris), or any other animal that would require a higher level of care and control than that required for common household pets sold in pet stores or domestic farm animals is considered an exotic animal. Millions of wild animals are captured from their natural habitats or born into captivity each year for the sole purpose of becoming pets. Our homes are not fit for a wild animal to live in.
Veterinary surgery consists of three types of treatments performed on animals by veterinarians: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, circulatory system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Veterinary surgeons perform advanced surgical procedures such as fracture repair, total hip, knee, and elbow replacement, cranial cruciate ligament deficiency stabilisation, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, and minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy) (as registered in their jurisdiction). The majority of general practise veterinarians do regular surgeries like neuters and small mass excisions, although some also perform other treatments. The purpose of veterinary surgery in pets and farm animals may be quite different. In the former, the scenario is more similar to that of humans, where the patient's benefit is the most significant aspect. The economic gain is more relevant in the latter case.
When compared to the simple dietary requirements of plants, most animals' nutritional requirements are very large and complex. Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, minerals, and vitamins are among the nutrients used by animals. Phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, magnesium, and zinc are among the minerals that animals require. These minerals are frequently obtained by animals when they eat plants. Vitamins are chemical substances that are required in trace amounts for animal health. Vitamins are either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Animals get their nutrients through a wide range of feeding methods.
The basic processes used in the treatment of numerous diseases that occur in domestic and wild animals are referred to as veterinary diseases treatment. In veterinary medicine, the notion of health and disease is crucial. Animal disease is a change in an animal's normal state that impairs the normal functioning of its vital processes. Some animal diseases can also infect other animals, including humans. The government assists in the fight against zoonotic disease epidemics. A disease that affects animals can spread far beyond the farm where it first appears. It has the potential to harm other farming enterprises and the economy as a whole, as well as represent a hazard to public health. As a result, the government assists in the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Professionals in the field of veterinary diseases play a critical role in researching numerous diseases that affect animals, as well as the causative agents of these diseases and the many diagnostic techniques used to treat them. Animal diseases endanger public health and harm businesses and the economy as a whole. As a result, farmers and the government take every care to avoid these diseases, such as cleaning animal shelters and vaccinating cattle.
Producers' economic existence depends on the reproductive success of their livestock, which in turn influences the cost of meat and other animal products for consumers. Animal husbandry relies heavily on the ability of animals to reproduce efficiently. Infertility is a concern in all animal production systems, including aquaculture species, to some extent. Reproductive failure is one of the most major problems limiting animal production systems' output and resulting in millions of dollars in lost revenues each year. Specific and non-specific diseases impair reproduction or the animal as a whole, which affects reproductive activities. Many problems can be solved with proper attention at the appropriate time. Basic research advances our understanding of the core biology of reproduction, allowing for the creation of cutting-edge management strategies that maximise reproductive efficiency while minimising economic loss.
Telemedicine, often known as telehealth or e-medicine, is the remote delivery of healthcare services over telecommunications infrastructure, such as exams and consultations. Telemedicine allows doctors to evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients without having to see them in person. Telehealth brings both benefits and challenges for healthcare practitioners, including veterinarians and their staff, as a result of the advent of digital communications technologies. The incorporation of telehealth and telemedicine has been a topic of interest in the veterinary sector as the use of digital information and communication technology continues to rise. Veterinary telemedicine has the potential to expand veterinary medicine by boosting client and patient access to healthcare services while also improving medical quality.
Translational research (also known as translational science or translation) is a study that aims to translate (convert) fundamental research findings into results that benefit humanity directly. The term is commonly used in science and technology, particularly biology and medicine. Translational research is a subset of applied research. Translational research is also known as bench to bedside research in the field of medicine. Laboratory science and clinical medicine come together in translational research to discover new therapies to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. Clinical trials are commonly related with translational research, which is the first stage in bringing a new treatment, medicine, or technology to the market for general use. One important explanation is faulty preclinical research, in which the usage and outcome of animal models are critical in bridging the translational gap from the lab to the clinic. As a result, choosing a validated and predictive animal model is critical for answering the clinical question.
Veterinary epidemiology is one of the numerous professions that belong under the umbrella of veterinary public health. It focuses on disease surveillance, response, and prevention. It entails gathering and analysing data in order to generate and evaluate hypotheses about disease trends. Veterinary epidemiologists will be able to better grasp the hazards and how to prevent widespread disease as a result of this. Because there is a lot of overlap between human and animal health, veterinary epidemiology is an important area. Veterinary epidemiology can play a critical role in emerging and worldwide disease epidemics, assisting in the study and control of infections and other emerging diseases, such as those transmitted from one animal to another and those that may be passed from animals to humans. Veterinary epidemiology is critical for the health of animals, humans, and ecosystems. Epidemiology is used by all veterinarians, and it can be incorporated into any practise.
Veterinary vaccinations have played a significant role in protecting animal and human health, minimizing animal suffering, enabling efficient food animal production to support the growing human population, and considerably reducing the demand for antibiotics to treat food and companion animals. Animal vaccines that are both safe and effective are critical in today's society. Without vaccines to prevent epizootics in food-producing animals, producing enough animal protein to feed the world's almost 7 billion people would be impossible. Veterinary vaccinations are used in livestock and poultry to boost overall productivity and maintain animal health. Vaccines for zoonotic illnesses in food animals, companion animals, and even wildlife have significantly reduced the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in humans. Antibiotics are used less frequently to treat diseases in food-producing and companion animals thanks to veterinary vaccinations.
Veterinary pharmaceuticals give animals the comprehensive health care they require. In order to achieve optimal animal health care, safe and high-quality drugs must be available in sufficient quantities. Drugs, treatments, and other chemicals used to cure or prevent animal diseases for the purposes of animal health, growth enhancement, and productivity are referred to as veterinary pharmaceuticals. These medications can be classified into several groups based on the pathogens or infections that they target. Antiparasitic pharmaceuticals, anti-inflammatory drugs, reproductive drugs, surgical drugs, anaesthetics, nutritional drugs, and feed additives used as growth promoters are among them. Antibiotics are one of the most regularly used drugs in veterinary medicine. These medications and medicaments can be given as an injection, a tablet, a bolus, a drench, or a bath/wash, or they can be mixed into feed and water. Veterinary medications are required to supply the ever-increasing human demand for animal protein. Their routine and unguarded usage, on the other hand, plays a crucial role in a number of public health issues, including antibiotic resistance.
Humans have a strong desire to save the environment. As the human population encroaches on their resources, wildlife conservation works to safeguard plant and animal species. Plant and animal species, as well as their habitats, are protected through wildlife conservation. Wildlife, as a component of the world's ecosystems, contributes to the balance and stability of natural processes. Wildlife conservation aims to ensure the survival of these species while also educating people on how-to live-in harmony with other species. Over the last 200 years, the human population has increased tremendously, reaching more than seven billion people now, and it continues to do so. This means that the world's natural resources are being depleted at a faster rate than ever before. The habitats and existence of numerous forms of wildlife around the world are also threatened by this growth and development, particularly animals and plants that may be displaced for land development or consumed for food or other human reasons.