Veterinary surgery consists of three types of treatments performed on animals by veterinarians: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, circulatory system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Veterinary surgeons perform advanced surgical procedures such as fracture repair, total hip, knee, and elbow replacement, cranial cruciate ligament deficiency stabilisation, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, and minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy) (as registered in their jurisdiction). The majority of general practise veterinarians do regular surgeries like neuters and small mass excisions, although some also perform other treatments. The purpose of veterinary surgery in pets and farm animals may be quite different. In the former, the scenario is more similar to that of humans, where the patient's benefit is the most significant aspect. The economic gain is more relevant in the latter case.
When compared to the simple dietary requirements of plants, most animals' nutritional requirements are very large and complex. Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, minerals, and vitamins are among the nutrients used by animals. Phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, magnesium, and zinc are among the minerals that animals require. These minerals are frequently obtained by animals when they eat plants. Vitamins are chemical substances that are required in trace amounts for animal health. Vitamins are either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Animals get their nutrients through a wide range of feeding methods.